• September 29, 2014
  • SQL
  • Comments Off on SQL operators

SQL operators

Operator:

An operator is a special symbol which used to perform a specific operation.

SQL operators:

SQL operators are the reserved words or special symbols or characters that are used to perform specific operations.

Types of SQL operators:

  1. 1. SQL Arithmetic Operators
  2. 2. SQL Comparison Operators
  3. 3. SQL Logical Operators

1. SQL Arithmetic Operators:

Let us consider the two variables a and b, where a hold 20 and b hold 40.

Operator Description Example
+ It is used to add the operands values. a + b will give 60
It is used to subtract right hand operand from left hand operand. a – b will give -20
* It is used to multiply the operands values. a * b will give 800
/ It is used to divide left hand operand by right hand operand b / a will give 2
% It is used to modulo divide left hand operand by right hand operand. b % a will give 0

 

2.   SQL Comparison Operators:

Let us consider the two variables a and b, where a hold 20 and b hold 40.

Operator Description Example
= It is used to check that the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. (a = b) is not true.
!= It is used to check that the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. (a != b) is true.
<> It is used to check that the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. (a <> b) is true.
> It is used to check that the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a > b) is not true.
< It is used to check that the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a < b) is true.
>= It is used to check that the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a >= b) is not true.
<= It is used to check that the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a <= b) is true.
!< It is used to check that the value of left operand is not less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a !< b) is false.
!> It is used to check that the value of left operand is not greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a !> b) is true.

 

3.   SQL Logical Operators

Operator Description
ALL It is used to compare a value to all values in another value set.
AND It allows the existence of multiple conditions in an SQL statement’s WHERE clause.
ANY It is used to compare a value to any applicable value in the list according to the condition.
BETWEEN It is used to search for values that are within a set of values, given the minimum value and the maximum value.
EXISTS It is used to search for the presence of a row in a specified table that meets certain criteria.
IN The IN operator is used to compare a value to a list of literal values that have been specified.
LIKE It is used to compare a value to similar values using wildcard operators.
NOT It reverses the meaning of the logical operator with which it is used. Eg: NOT EXISTS, NOT BETWEEN, NOT IN, etc. This is a negate operator.
OR It is used to combine multiple conditions in an SQL statement’s WHERE clause.
IS NULL It is used to compare a value with a NULL value.
UNIQUE It searches every row of a specified table for uniqueness (no duplicates).

 
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